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ERA Coalition:

Equal Rights Amendment:

ACLU Maine:

Generation Ratify:

ERA Minnesota:

Mormons for ERA:


We the WOMEN, The Unstoppable Mothers of the Equal Rights Amendment, by Julie C. Suk, 2020

When Everything Changed: The Amazing Journey of American Women from 1960 to the Present, by Gail Collins


Equal Means Equal, Why the Time for the Equal Rights Amendment is NOW,

by Jessica Neuwirth

Why the ERA failed: Politics, Women's rights, and the Amending Process of the Constitution

by Mary Frances Berry


Articles of Interest

Janet Yellen article about the positive effect of increasing womens' employment on the GNP:


NYT editorial about the ERA 3.26.17:


Discussion of the amendment process: 


This is what Equality looks like in the UK:


Republicans and the ERA:


"What young women may not know": Leader Telegram 2.5.2017


"The case against contemporary feminism": New Yorker 2.8.2017


"Since when is being a woman a liberal cause?": New York Times 2.11.2017


"What Republicans have to learn from the Womens March": New York Times 1.23.2017


"Massachusetts middle schoolers push for the ERA": Women’s eNews Blog 12.26.2016 


"Women in Iceland protest the country's 14% pay gap by leaving work 14% early": 

New York Times 10.25.2016


"Few Women Fight Wildfires.  That's not because they're afraid of flames": Washington Post 11.19.2016

"Team USA members on historic fight for equal pay in women's soccer": CBS 60 Minutes




Equal Means Equal:

Legal Papers

Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress): July 2018 review of the steps to ratification for the ERA:

National Women's Law Center paper on Gender Rating and the ACA


William and Mary Law Paper on viability of the ERA:



Equal Pay Act (1963)


Civil Rights Act – Title VII (1964)


Workplace sexual harassment


Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978) is an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964


Education Amendments – Title IX (1972)


Violence Against Women Act (1994)


Primary Sources

Declaration of Independence (1776)


U.S. Constitution (1787)


Bill of Rights (1795)


XIV Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause (1868)


Amendment XIV

Section 1.

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Full text:


Amendment XIX (1920)


The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

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